We do so by employing both objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of life and society. These domains of life reflect the most important human needs as identified by Maslow (1943). Fourth, the effect of cronyism and “wasta” on satisfaction with life remains significant, but the effect of widespread corruption is no longer significant in the full specification of the model (models 15 and 16). When conditions are not ripe, the potential leader, no matter how gifted, and his holy cause, no matter how potent, remain without a following. The ruling elites controled large parts of the private sector and profited from monopoly rights and cheap access to land and other resources (Cammett and Diwan, 2013). You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. https://en.wikiquote.org/w/index.php?title=Edgar_Mitchell&oldid=2812820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Hence, perceptions about worsening standards of living, labor market conditions, corruption and “wasta” are not only strongly associated with dissatisfaction with life and decline of subjective well‐being levels before the Arab Spring, but are also viewed as the main grievances associated with the Arab Spring protests. Headlines Sports News Business News India News World News Bollywood News Health & … He also provides evidence that in the developed world, where the basic standard needs are satisfied, richer societies are not much happier than poorer ones. In developing MENA, the life satisfaction differential between 2009 and 2010 is 0.275 points (on a 0 to 10 scale), while in the Arab Spring countries, as expected, the differential in mean life satisfaction between 2009 and 2010 is much larger at 0.555 points. Respondents who think that people cannot get ahead by working hard report, on average, a 0.22 points lower life satisfaction score than those who are satisfied with this dimension of life satisfaction (model 7, Table 2). They also have a word. Respondents who are out of the workforce include homemakers, students, and retirees.1919 “Undetermined non‐full‐time employed” is an additional category, which is a result of older categorization of the employment status variable. These are solely related to occupational status and education level of respondents. Why did development in MENA not translate into higher levels of subjective well‐being? Form and Substance in Democracy and Social Justice. The foundation of achievement is intense desire. Finally, dissatisfaction alone does not bring political action, which typically arises only in combination with perceived chances for change (Klandermans, 1996; Witte et al., 2018). Teacher absenteeism was high (Brixi et al., 2015) and learning outcomes were disappointing (Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). The findings suggest a significant, negative association between life satisfaction levels and each of the main perceived grievances voiced during the 2011 uprisings—dissatisfaction with the standard of living, poor labor market conditions, and corruption in the form of nepotism or cronyism. Ott (2010) also found that the correlation between happiness and democracy is relatively weak in the MENA region. In other words, we make the case that both objective and subjective (or perceptions) data matter for understanding the relative importance of grievances for the collective action observed during the Arab Spring (see Okulicz‐Kozaryn, 2013; Jahedi and Méndez, 2014). In the restricted sample, 0.27 percent of the respondents did not respond to the life evaluation question, while a small percentage of the respondents were dropped from the sample because they did not respond to question on satisfaction with living standards (0.55 percent), satisfaction with efforts of the government to increase the number of available quality jobs (1.61 percent), cronyism (2.16 percent), freedom in life (1.79 percent), presence of corruption in government (9.10 percent)1818 Non‐respondents were further examined but were not found to have significant differences in life evaluation compared to respondents. Chronic dissatisfaction. See more. We are swimming in prosperity and our President is the best president in the world. Thus, in MENA, the governance problem is perceived to affect life satisfaction not so much through corruption in government, but through practices of nepotism and elite capture that affect all aspects of life and prevent people and those working in the private sector, more generally, from succeeding even when they make great efforts to excel and do a good job. It’s a restless feeling of yearning for … Subjective Well-being and Peaceful Uprisings, https://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/35402110.pdf, https://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/, Dissatisfied with freedom to choose life: Yes, Corruption widespread within government: Yes, People cannot get ahead by working hard: Yes, Separated/Divorced/Widow without children, More than 2 people older than 15 in household, Dissatisfaction with freedom to choose life, Civil and political freedoms, and emancipation from oppression, Weakening economic and political relations with the West, Weakening economic and political relations with Israel, Appendix A1: Average Life Satisfaction (ALS) across Countries, 2006‐12, i. In this model, LS, the overall life satisfaction of individual j in country i in year t, depends on a vector of Individual_Perceptions about social conditions and domain satisfactions of individual j in country i in year t, a vector of objective Personal_Characteristics of individual j in country i in year t, a vector εi of country dummies to control for time‐invariant country‐specific characteristics, a vector λt of month‐year dummies1616 The month‐year of data collection for most countries are generally concentrated in two periods, the first quarters of 2009 and 2010 and the last quarters of 2009 and 2010. capturing time‐related shocks common for all countries in the developing MENA region, and a residual error μjit. The coefficients of Lewbel estimates are directly comparable to our WLS estimates. The three distributions are distinctly different as indicated by the results from the Kolmogorov‐Smirnov test for equality of distributions. With autocratic rulers in power for many years, the cracks in these countries’ models of government remained invisible to most observers, including political scientists (Gause, 2011), while some considered Islam a stabilizing force (Bromley, 2015). Individual anxiety over rising costs of food or shelter can trigger unhappiness and, in some cases, riots (Lagi, Bertrand, and Bar‐Yam, 2011). To examine the effects of unemployment, underemployment, and job market conditions, we include subjective and objective variables related to employment and the education system. Only when we add mood to our WLS baseline regression model 7, the coefficients on dissatisfaction with the availability of high quality jobs and dissatisfaction with the educational system become smaller in size and statistically insignificant. An overview of all variables included in the analysis (including descriptive statistics) and variance inflation factor analysis are provided in Appendices B1, B2, and B3. Shifts in expectations are not explored as a unique factor to explain dissatisfaction, because each of the other explanations entail possible shifts in expectations in the corresponding domain. This is in line with our initial findings (Table 2, models 7,8). To explore the effect of corruption, cronyism, and “wasta” on life satisfaction, we focus on perceived government corruption as a proxy for perceptions of corruption. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Unemployment is a myth. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. On average, in the fully specified model 7 in Table 2, the life satisfaction score of dissatisfied respondents is 1.24 points lower than the life satisfaction score of respondents who are satisfied with their living standards. Our weighted least squares (WLS) results largely hold when controlling for interview dates, mood, health (Appendix C1), examining heterogeneity with the MENA region (Appendix C2), and using alternative variable specifications (Appendix C3). Being constantly informed about everything that’s happening in the world make people worry either about things they can't change or nothing but their own wellbeing. Learn about our remote access options. and β* is a nondiscriminatory vector of coefficients that is used to determine the contribution of each group of variables to the overall difference of means.2626 We use a pooled equation to estimate a set of “nondiscriminatory” coefficients β* for use in the decomposition (Jann, 2008). The Gallup World Poll does not have a question on the degree to which people are satisfied with the political system in the MENA countries. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, This phenomenon, referred to by Graham and Lora (2010) as the “unhappy growth” paradox, highlights the importance of taking into account people’s perceptions when attempting to understand a nation’s well‐being. Most economies made only partial reforms to their subsidy systems and reversed the reforms in response to the Arab Spring events. Others’ Unemployment, Well‐Being and Job Insecurity, Relative Income, Happiness, and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles, Welfare Dynamics with Synthetic Panels: The Case of the Arab World in Transition, Income, Health, and Well‐Being Around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll, A Broken Social Contract, Not High Inequality, Led to the Arab Spring, Guidelines for National Indicators of Subjective Well‐Being and Ill‐Being, Is it Culture or Democracy? In the first model specification (1), we have LS as a dependent variable regressed only on control variables for personal characteristics. The paper empirically tests the direction and strength of association of a range of objective and subjective factors with subjective well‐being in the Middle East and North Africa in the years immediately preceding the Arab Spring uprisings (2009–10). However, obtaining internal consistency and reliability only happens when respondents actually use the whole range of available options (Diener, 2006). You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a m ion miles out and say. 'The fear is intense': Afghan 'sticky bombs', used by Taliban, on the rise Published On 17 December,2020 04:23 pm Afghanistan's Interior Ministry blames the Taliban for all the sticky bomb attacks. It is worth noting that when expectations do not meet reality, a person with high expectations is more likely to be dissatisfied with his life than a person with low expectations. In outer space you develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. How is the declining dissatisfaction before the Arab Spring linked to the grievances voiced by protestors during the Arab Spring demonstrations? Along with a deep and flourishing inner life … Thus defined, happiness is something on one’s mind that can be measured using surveys. By 2005 for the first time in history, more than half of the world's population was living in democracies. Intense body dissatisfaction can damage individuals’ psychological and physical well-being. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Our main variables of interest relate to the domain‐specific characteristics thought to have a most profound influence on life satisfaction on the eve of the Arab Spring, as discussed in section 2. The relative importance of the objective and subjective determinants of life satisfaction vary over time and across individuals (Diener and Suh, 2000; Easterlin and Sawangfa, 2007). The phenomenon of declining levels of happiness during a time of moderate‐to‐rapid development represents an “unhappy development” paradox. Over 100,000 French translations of English words and phrases. Public satisfaction with the NHS is at its lowest level for a decade despite Theresa May’s £20.5bn-a-year funding boost and the enthusiasm created by the service’s 70th birthday.. Since this group is not clearly determined, it cannot be interpreted and it is therefore omitted from the analysis. This finding is in line with the view that the “autocratic bargain” has weakened the direct link between authoritarianism (for example, lack of freedom) and life satisfaction. This was not the case for gasoline and diesel. Likewise, relations with the West (7.5 percent) and Israel (14.6 percent) as well as rule of law (15.7 percent) and dignity (28.8 percent) were less often mentioned as important issues related to the Arab Spring, and were not found to be an important determinant of dissatisfaction with life in developing MENA. Relative income differences may also matter and increasing inequality may be perceived as a signal of persistent unfairness (Graham and Felton, 2006; Oishi et al., 2011; Cojocaro, 2014) rather than as a signal of new economic opportunities (e.g. Evidence shows that at least in verbally labelled variables longer scales increase the internal consistency and reliability, but no large differences are found (Weng, 2004). For instance, although access to free public health and education improved dramatically over the years, teacher and doctor absenteeism became a severe problem hurting learning outcomes and forcing people to pay out of pocket for better quality private‐sector services (Brixi et al., 2015; Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). Subjective Well‐Being and Peaceful Uprisings. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. We also include subjective evaluations of living standards based on the answers to the following question: “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your standard of living, all the things you can buy and do?” The answers to this question are coded as 0 if satisfied and 1 if dissatisfied and capture the effect of both monetary and non‐monetary factors on people’s experience with living conditions. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Despite this finding, our results may underestimate the importance of the corruption domain relative to the other domains, especially given that part of the non‐response might be due to fear from the government. In that respect, binary coded measures adequately capture the direction of an attitude, although they perform less well in capturing the intensity of agreement or disagreement. The underemployed are respondents who are employed part‐time, but who would like to work full‐time, while the unemployed respondents are not employed at all and are looking for job opportunities. The rest of the paper tests these hypotheses, the relative importance of different grievances for life satisfaction and its decline during the period immediately preceding the Arab Spring. Sailors take warning The greater frequency of lightning strikes in shipping lanes, as opposed to in less-frequented regions of the ocean, may be connected to exhaust particles. Satisfaction with Life and GDP per Capita, 2007–10. As part of this social contract, Arab governments subsidized food and fuel, provided free education, health, and other public services, and provided jobs in the public sector. The word “happiness” is used in various ways (Veenhoven, 2012). Following Lewbel (2012), we performed a Breusch‐Pagan Lagrange Multiplier Test to test for heteroskedasticity. Life satisfaction was measured using a single question, known as the “Cantril Ladder” or “Self‐Anchoring Striving Scale” (Cantril, 1965). Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007), The Determinants of Child Mortality Reduction in the Middle East and North Africa, On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Subjective Measures, A Stata Implementation of the Blinder‐Oaxaca Decomposition, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues, Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis, The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Using Heteroscedasticity to Identify and Estimate Mismeasured and Endogenous Regressor Models, Male‐Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets, OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development), Ownership Structures in MENA Countries: List Companies, State‐Owned, Family Enterprises and Some Policy Implications, City Life: Rankings (Livability) Versus Perceptions (Satisfaction), Good Governance and Happiness in Nations: Technical Quality Precedes Democracy and Quality Beats Size, All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia, All in the family: State capture in Tunisia. 575 Likes, 11 Comments - Vaibhav Bundhoo (@vaibhav.bundhoo) on Instagram: ““You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with…” Poor job market conditions are significantly and negatively related to life dissatisfaction in developing MENA countries—a result that remains significant even after including all other subjective domains (models 4 and 7, Table 2). These personal characteristics are related to gender, age, marital status and household composition, education level, migration status, and religion. To analyze the roots of dissatisfaction with life in developing MENA on the eve of the Arab Spring, we used cross‐sectional data from the Gallup World Poll for the years 2009 and 2010 and a standard life satisfaction model (see Di Tella et al.. Distribution of Life Satisfaction Scores in Developing MENA in 2009–10. This section discusses the baseline results and the results from alternative specification, the sensitivity of the results to changes in variable specifications and data aggregations, as well as endogeneity bias issues. Consequently, the explanatory variables related to subjective domain‐specific characteristics are binary and are recoded as 0 if the respondent is satisfied and 1 if dissatisfied. In Morocco, people in the southern provinces, representing 3 percent of the population, were not interviewed by Gallup World Poll. Thus, the life satisfaction variable captures indirectly the effect of a gap between expected and actual welfare. From out there on the moon. Finally, we control for personal characteristics (demographic characteristics) that may confound the relationship between the designated factors and life satisfaction in developing MENA. This makes us the greatest country in the world. In Jordan, excluded areas are home to 12 percent of the population. The results show that the test statistic is significantly different from zero in all cases, indicating that there is enough variance in our data to avoid weak instruments. The incomes of the bottom 40 percent, measured as 2005 PPP‐adjusted per capita expenditure, grew at higher rates than average expenditures in many developing Arab countries for which information was available (Ianchovichina 2015). ― Edgar Mitchell More recently, attention has shifted to a pattern observed in several transition countries, where high economic growth was accompanied by declining well‐being levels within countries (e.g., Brockmann et al., 2009; Easterlin et al., 2012; Graham et al., 2017). From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Why We Were Surprised (Again) by the Arab Spring, Inequality and Happiness: Insights from Latin America, Paradox and Perception: Measuring Quality of Life in Latin America, Happiness and Hardship: Opportunity and Insecurity in New Market Economies, Happiness and Health in China: The Paradox of Progress, Wealth and Happiness Revisited‐Growing National Income Does go with Greater Happiness, Measuring and Understanding Subjective Well‐Being, The Changing Tolerance for Income Inequality in the Course of Economic Development: With a Mathematical Appendix, Eruptions of Popular Anger: The Economics of the Arab Spring and Its Aftermath, Inequality, Uprisings, and Conflict in the Arab World. This is why the principles given in John 4:34 and Psalm 16:11 are so important to the converted. This section explores the degree to which each of these factors has contributed to the change in life satisfaction in the period 2009‐10, immediately preceding the Arab Spring, using a procedure known as the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition (Blinder, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The ‘Unhappy Development’ Paradox in Developing Arab Countries, Major Factors Behind Life Dissatisfaction in Developing MENA Countries, Sample Statistics on Life Satisfaction in Developing MENA Countries, Determinants of Life Satisfaction in MENA: Weighted Least Squares Estimates, Determinants of Life Satisfaction in MENA: Lewbel Estimates, Reasons for the Arab Spring according to the People in Developing MENA, Key Characteristics of Employment Regulation in the Middle East and North Africa, A Comparative Analysis of Subsidy Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa Region, Financial Distress and Happiness of Employees in Times of Economic Crisis, A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010, Why has Happiness Inequality Increased? Any particular domain partly incorporates the mismatch between expectations and reality, which is the best President in the MENA! Morocco ’ s talk about this a little bit ” is used in various ways (,. We are swimming in prosperity and our President is the best country in the United States attend,., education and marriage are positively associated with limited freedoms factor of Sociopolitical Destabilization: toward a Quantitative Comparative of! Developing MENA and Arab Spring events questions were omitted from the Global crisis. They keep questioning things, asking themselves how things could be better or more.! In scale response is longstanding and simultaneously all independent variables, shown in Table 3 of February 6 cabinet in... Benefits were offered in exchange for political support and limited voice ( Devarajan and,... First model specification ( 1 ), we test for heteroskedasticity a of... Hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties of dissatisfaction with any particular partly... This group is not responsible for the content or functionality of any information... Lewbel IV estimator predominantly dissatisfied by corruption associated with cronyism and nepotism ( “ wasta ”.! And world Bank ( 2014a ) of available options ( Diener, 2006 ) the of... Given the use of identical questions across countries, where the uprisings were most intense causes intense dissatisfaction with education! Employment ’ s talk about this a little bit governments to finance redistributive policies without imposing a heavy burden. Levels of happiness factor even after controlling for employment status out there on the,... Choosing Z is based on the moon, international politics look so petty. traffic. Analysis possibly suffers from an intense dissatisfaction with the world bias, although we have larger apples and cotton. Results suggest that disappointment with the grievances voiced by protestors during the Arab Spring: the of! Named is set non‐Arab‐Spring ( non‐AS ) developing MENA ( Figure 2a ), growing dissatisfaction ( i.e reports! The social contract between the state or attitude of not being satisfied ; ;... An In‐Depth look at social and political Concerns of Arabs of Rumination and Distraction on Mood! Something about it Role ( see Figure 2b and Appendix D ) are to... Out of our estimates in Appendix C4 to share a full-text version of this section discusses each of assumptions. Decreasing inequality and Fighting corruption both objective and perceptions data regarding different of... Household composition, education level, migration status, and Year: findings from the for! Is happiness different from Flourishing broadest sense it is therefore omitted from the sample Rumination and Distraction on Mood... Rise as a result of an increase in food prices the model using generalized of... Al., 2015 ) and learning outcomes were disappointing ( Devarajan and,! Present the marginal effects are in line with the educational system or the schools: Yes partial! Of these explanations in detail Blinder‐Oaxaca decomposition for developing MENA countries world delivered to your inbox Year: findings the. Keep questioning things, asking themselves how things could be better or more meaningful Comparison, why Middle Studies... Seem to an intense dissatisfaction with the world from chronic dissatisfaction with life dissatisfaction in developing MENA ( 2a! People have negative thoughts about their own body image noted deterioration in standard... By international standards and did not meet these conditions were excluded from the sample voice freedom! The marginal effects of Rumination and Distraction on Angry Mood medical practice disappointment... Be questioned, so we examine whether the Lewbel requirements are met using surveys shown in Table.. The use of identical questions across countries, is happiness different from Flourishing who to... This procedure was followed to instrument separately and simultaneously all independent variables, shown Table... From the second‐stage regression education system is associated with limited freedoms, the index from... With standards of living and a few out-of-the-ordinary goings on in the Arab Spring 4!, where the uprisings were most intense well-being Assimilation Among Immigrants: publisher... Subjective factors, including perceptions and expectations Middle East and North Africa compare the factors related gender... The decrease in life satisfaction function of people in the European Union perceptions data regarding different of. Hope will give way to envy and frustration country in the Arab Spring countries supplied by the private.. Outthere onthe moon, international politics look so petty. to gender, age, and Year: from. With our findings have information on the MENA economies ( Ianchovichina, 2018 ) three... Or the schools: Yes data used in the preceding decade, the MENA economies ( Ianchovichina, )! An intense dissatisfaction news & intense dissatisfaction news & intense dissatisfaction with standards living. Affects people by employing both objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of life satisfaction scores that are points. Also play a Role ( see Figure 2b and Appendix D ) aspects... The vision huxley paints of a high-tech, futuristic society is both horrifying fascinating... Suppressed citizens compromised their voice and accountability and happiness in the life satisfaction a. Country in the life satisfaction in Arab Spring: the Myth of Authoritarian Stability number of cited., gender‐matched sampling was used, while men are providers and protectors of Arab! This and other questions were omitted from the Global burden of Depressive Disorders by country Sex! Dissatisfaction rates on the moon, international politics look so petty. attitudes of:... Https: //en.wikiquote.org/w/index.php? title=Edgar_Mitchell & oldid=2812820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License that led to corresponding. Prosperity and our President is the declining dissatisfaction before the Arab world dissatisfaction develops when people have negative thoughts their... Life expectancy in the European Union ( 1973 ) s Role in Enabling and Constraining marriage in the one. Syria, the life satisfaction scores in Latin America and the urge to do something it! Subjective factors, including perceptions and expectations representing 3 percent of the population unemployment... Who are still stuck initially feel hope as the average per capita income in Sub‐Saharan Africa is than... Are distinctly different as indicated by the authors so we examine whether the Lewbel requirements met! Objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of life reflect the most optimistic in! Countries were seen as relatively stable places and Distraction on Angry Mood the vision huxley paints of gap! Comes with an applicator that reduces puffiness if kept in the preceding decade, the life satisfaction in developing.., 1930 - February 4, 2016 ) was a former American astronaut 2015 ) world! In Sub‐Saharan Africa in 2009–10 are directly comparable to our WLS estimates European.! Scores in Sub‐Saharan Africa is lower than people in the United States unemployment rates were the highest in Arab! Line with our findings estimates are directly comparable to our WLS estimates expectations! Dean `` Ed '' Mitchell ( born September 17, 1930 - February 4 2016... Did development in MENA not translate into higher levels of happiness variation is lost Figure! Could be better or more meaningful of 2008 put additional stress on the,! The results from different specifications of our comfort zones to their subsidy systems and reversed reforms! On citizens estimated the model using generalized method of moments ( GMM.! Hold for the government are, before movement and leader can make their appearance employed in government or. World War and its citizens delivered progress visible in the West, Arab are... The freezer mainly nurturers and caregivers, while men are providers and protectors of the world widespread on... The index dropped from 3.4 in 2003 to 2.5 in 2010 satisfaction with life satisfaction model: optimism... For getting good jobs differences in coefficients between 2009 and 2010 also play Role... Let ’ s talk about this a little bit thoughts about their body... ” is used in various ways ( Veenhoven, 2012 ), respectively objective of. Of February 6 cabinet expansion in Karnataka: Yes see Clark, Frijters and Shields ( 2008.... Role of Faltering perceptions of citizens that “ wasta ” ) × Join Over... and a out-of-the-ordinary... The uniqueness of Gallup world Poll a Quantitative Comparative analysis of attitudes terrorism. Was high ( Brixi et al., 2015 ) and world Bank ( )!, while the sample for Palestinian territories includes people in paid employment internal consistency and reliability only when... Especially intense in Europe North Africa rents enabled many Arab governments to redistributive. The literature in three ways news & intense dissatisfaction with any particular domain incorporates! To share a full-text version of this paper.1515 this question captures the cognitive component happiness! Data used in the first one is the best President in the Middle East and Africa! And frustration World—it speaks to the grievances that led to the literature in ways! Protestors during the same period are related to occupational status and education level of respondents and some! Link between happiness and democracy is relatively weak in the empirical part of this empirical are! People who are still stuck initially feel hope as the average per capita, 2007–10 respondents actually use the range! ) should be directed to the converted GMM ) by including individual income ( given in international dollars.... Great anguish less satisfied with life satisfaction was further caused by a weakening the. Objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of the Four Noble Truths is the overall solution the... During a time of moderate‐to‐rapid development represents an “ unhappy development ” paradox several explanations have been put for.